Part of the reason is that “[m]ost of the time when a player has a concussion, standard medical imaging techniques do not show damage.”[31] No “gold standard” for diagnosing concussions currently exists. [18] Ernest L. Abel, Football Increases the Risk for Lou Gehrig’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Perceptual Motor Skills, 104(3): 1251-1254 (20007). What moral principles would you take into account? Consequentialists make it binding upon human beings to engage in activities that bring good consequences. Some take the view that the NFL has acted like the tobacco industry did when it was confronted with lawsuits seeking to prove to juries that smoking caused cancer. Others suggest that the uncertainty favors taking actions now rather than waiting until too much damage is done, as happened with tobacco. Egoism: is a theory of ethics that focuses on achieving goals that benefit or brings pleasure or greatest good to oneself. In the wake of the recent pandemic, Oklahoma State head football coach Mike Gundy said “In my opinion, if we have to bring our players back, test them. Utilitarianism But which states of affairs are valuable and which states of affairs are not? This is a theory that believes that all of us want to be happy but at the same time try to avoid pain to most of us around us. They’re healthy … And people say that’s crazy. Utilitarianism is a special and most popular type of consequentialism. The post What is utilitarianism? [82] Stephen S. Hanson, ‘He Didn’t Want to Let His Team Down’: The Challenge of Dual Loyalty for Team Physicians, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 45(3): 215-227 (2018). Other studies found that NFL players who suffered concussions were more likely to later be diagnosed with depression. This theory in ethics accentuates on the fact that we should engage in acts that do maximum good to the maximum number of people. An Analysis of Youth Football Head Impact Data, Neurosurgery (Jan. 2020), available at https://doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz563. Consequentialism & Utilitarianism. If subconcussive blows are the cause of C.T.E., how much impact is too much? A Consequentialist would shout, "If it feels good, DO IT!!" Furthermore, many of the miners in the Kachin region, on both sides of the conflict, are not fully aware of the value of the amber that they are selling and are therefore being exploited by the wholesalers who purchase from them. [5] Center for Disease Control, at https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html. It is the only moral framework that can be used to justify military force or war. Five million cribs had been sold. [86] Ted Tatos, Playing Games with College Athletes’ Lives, The American Prospect, May 20, 2020. [91] J.S. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). [16] Kevin M. Guskiewicz et al., Recurrent Concussion and Risk of Depression in Retired Professional Football Players, Medicine & Science in Sports & Leisure, 39(6): 903-909 (2007). Whether an act is right or wrong, is dependent upon what and how much good the act has produced for people. Different utilitarian theories disagree about what well-being is. Our society allows people to voluntarily choose to undertake many risky professions, including coal miners, fire jumpers, soldiers, underwater oil rig welders, and others. Is Getting Soft. There are many similarities between these two theories of ethics to make students confused as they tend to equate one with another and often use them interchangeably. Why or why not? [77] Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016 (quoting CBS News quoting, in turn, Dr. John York). Rule utilitarianism: maintains that an action is right if it conforms to a rule that maximises utility; following rules that lead to the greatest good will have better consequences overall than allowing exceptions to be made in individual instances, even if better consequences can be demonstrated. Utilitarianism also has trouble accounting for values such as justice and individual rights. Filed Under: Behaviour Tagged With: Consequentialism, Consequentialist, Consequentialist approach, Consequentialist theory, Utilitarian, Utilitarian theory, Utilitarianism, Utilitarianism theory. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216311939?via%3Dihub, “Dodging Rumour and Insurgency: The Hunt for Burmese Amber Goes to the Heart of Myanmar’s Turbulent North,” Financial Post, Jan. 26, 2017. https://business.financialpost.com/commodities/mining/dodging-rumour-and-insurgency-the-hunt-for-burmese-amber-goes-to-the-heart-of-myanmars-turbulent-north, “It is Time to Bring Global Attention to the Trade in Burmese Amber,” NewScientist, May 1, 2019. https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232283-300-it-is-time-to-bring-global-attention-to-the-trade-in-burmese-amber/, American football is a rough and dangerous game. Football causes more concussions than any other high school sport. All three? Being Your Best Self, Part 1: Moral Awareness, Being Your Best Self, Part 2: Moral Decision Making, Being Your Best Self, Part 3: Moral Intent, Being Your Best Self, Part 4: Moral Action, Ethical Leadership, Part 1: Perilous at the Top, Ethical Leadership, Part 2: Best Practices, Curbing Corruption: GlaxoSmithKline in China. [93] Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is “brain degeneration likely caused by repeated head traumas.”[6] Repetitive head impacts (RHIs) can cumulatively lead to CTE and early death, even though no single RHI results in a concussion. For example, the government has made it difficult for Christian and Islamic groups to gain permission to repair or build new places of worship. [61] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. How do we answer that question? Do you think that the NFL would make more safety-related changes if white players dominated rosters? [7], If only one thing is clear about the current science surrounding sports-related concussions (SRCs) and related brain injuries, it is that very little is clear about the current science. [84] Ted Tatos, Playing Games with College Athletes’ Lives, The American Prospect, May 20, 2020. [15] Everett J. Lehman et al., Neurodegenerative Causes of Death Among Retired National Football League Players, Neurology, 79(19): 1970-1974 (2012). One expert said “It really seems right now that if your [football] practices are highly controlled and reduced as much as possible and you only play four years of high school, your [CTE] risk is probably pretty low.”. [48] In addition, evidence indicates (and is consistent with the self-serving bias) that industry funding of research often influences results. This would arguably produce the greatest good for the greatest number. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy: Legal. If so, how would you go about guarding against it have a deleterious impact? [47] There is also evidence that the NFL sought to influence the findings of some of the research it funded. Which approach do you think should be used to determine the ethicality of banning, or at least seriously reforming, football to reduce head trauma? Empirical research supports the notion that allowing children to engage in dangerous forms of play is key to their optimal development. [28] Eamon T. Campolettano et al., Development of a Concussion Risk Function for a Youth Population Using Heal Linear and Rotational Acceleration, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 48(1): 92 DOI: 10.1007/s10439-019-02382-2.

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