친동생 = biological younger sibling. The last vowel in the stem is ㅓ. 내일 뵙겠습니다 = formal: see you tomorrow 나를 The only part of speech that gets conjugated in Korean is verbs and adjectives (and 이다). All the sentences you have learned so far would never actually be used in Korean because they are not conjugated. 이 수업은 오늘 저의 열 번째 수업입니다 = This is my tenth class today If the verb stem is 하, you add 여and 하여 can be shortened to 해. 그 강아지의 꼬리는 아주 귀여워요 = That puppy’s tail is very cute, Common Usages: 수업시간 동안 종이를 던지지 마세요 = During class, don’t throw paper please See Lesson 7 for more information. Examples: Let’s cross! 그것은 큰 비밀이었어요 = That was a big secret In some cases it is “~아”, and in some cases it is “~어”. 저는 저녁에 공부했어요 = I studied in the evening When citing what someone said, -고 can be attached and used with the verb 하다. You can download all of these files in one package here. 저는 7년 동안 한국에서 살았어요 = I lived in Korea for seven years 비가 왔어요? The pronunciation of this word is closer to “시러하다”. So we add 었다 to the stem. For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool. Korean conjugations even determine if you ask or order for something. A PDF file neatly presenting all of these words, example sentences and extra information can be found here. Example: 농구공 = basketball, Example: 우리는 다음 시간에 더 배울 거예요 = We will learn more next time For example: 저 means “I/me” and is used in formal situations But, because the stem ends in a vowel, 었다 can merge with 너: 작년 = last year This YouTube video will prompt you to translate English sentences into Korean using the concepts from this lesson. 아주머니! Then, we can transform, or conjugate, the dictionary form into the many different forms by adding another word ending behind the word stem. When the last syllable of the stem ends in a consonant, you add ~는다 to the stem of the word: 먹다 = 먹는다 = to eat (먹 + 는다) The verb 사랑해요 does not change according to the number of people in the subject. 그 길은 길다 = that street is long 삼촌은 가게에 왔다 = (My) uncle came to the store, 배우다 = to learn Yeah… It sounds complicated, but I promise it’s not that bad. 저는 사진을 벽에 걸었어요 = I hung a picture on a wall, Example: 너의 남동생은 몇 살이야? Now we conjugate by adding the appropriate endings depending on the person you're talking to or about, and the tense (Past, Present and Future). 저는 세 시간 동안 잤어요 = I slept for three hours All Rights Reserved. 저를 But, because the stem ends in a vowel, 었다 can merge with 지: For example, 오빠 means “older brother” (when you are a woman). 비가 아직 와요 = It is still raining In Korea, the ~요 ending adds respect and politeness to your sentences, as shown in the examples below. 영업 시간 = business hours To make a formal and polite speech, you have to add ~ㅂ니다/습니다 at the end of your sentence. So, when you learn how to properly conjugate verbs, your Korean language comprehension is enhanced. If you can get through this lesson, almost everything you will learn will relate back to the principles in this lesson in one way or another. 저는 어제 두 시간 동안 TV를 봤어요 = I watched TV for two hours yesterday 내일 학교에 갈 것입니까? 그것은 맛있겠다 = That thing will be delicious So we add 었다 to the stem. The days of the week = 일요일, 월요일, 화요일, etc… 일요일 = Sunday. The conjugation system is the core of Korean grammar. 저는 저의 누나를 불렀어요 = I called my sister 나는 어제 친구 다섯 명을 만났어 = I met five friends yesterday Click on the English word to see information and examples of that word in use (you probably won’t be able to understand the grammar within the sentences at this point, but it is good to see as you progress through your learning). 나는 차가 있다 = I have a car Take me to the next lesson! 그는 동물을 사랑한다고 했어요 → He said that he loves animals. Korean verbs should be conjugated according to the speech level. It is possible to use this “diary” or “plain” form in conversation, but you are more likely to hear one of the conjugations discussed in the next lesson. In general, not only is this basic form rare in conversation, but Korean people do not use adjectives in the future as often as English speakers. The more you learn, the easier it gets! Therefore, ~을/를 should be attached to the object in the sentence that one does not like. 저는 사진을 하나도 안 찍었어요 = I didn’t even take one picture (I am purposely not providing example sentences because you still haven’t learned proper conjugations. The more you learn, the easier proper verb conjugation gets! Example: 남동생 = younger brother 빨리 건너자! This word is only used to refer to the sister(s) of one’s father, Example: Take me to the next lesson! The good news, however, is that conjugating in Korean is much easier than other languages (including English and especially French!). Korean Verb Conjugation For Formality & Politeness, How to Count in Korean and Everything About Korean Numbers, Korean Sentence Structures: A Complete Overview, The definitive guide to Korean speech levels, Korean Speech Levels and How To Use Them Properly, Korean Age: How to Calculate and Talk About It, How to Say I Love You in Korean: An Essential Guide to Survive in Romantic Korea. are past, present, future tense forms of the verb “love”. When a verb is changed to passive, the verb is conjugated with some infixes like -이, -히, -기, -리. / 책 써. 아버지가 벌써 떠났다는 것을 몰랐어요 = I didn’t know (the fact) that dad already left, The noun form of this word translates to “a joke”, Example: Verbs can also be quite long because of all the suffixes that mark grammatical contrasts. Check out the table giving a breakdown of adjectives in the past, present and future forms. 저는 어제 친구를 만났어요 = I met a friend yesterday 저는 내일부터 한국어를 공부할 거예요 = I’m going to study Korean from tomorrow 저는 작년에 한국에 갔어요 = I went to Korea last year 이해하다 = 이해한다 = to understand (이해하 + ㄴ다) 오늘아침 = this morning Past Tense 어제 비가 많이 왔어요 = Yesterday it rained a lot 내일 봐 = informal: see you tomorrow For example, earlier in this lesson you saw how ~는다 or ~ㄴ다 can be added to the stem of a verb in order to conjugate that verb to the present tense. = Is it raining? This lesson will show you how to conjugate past/present/future verbs in the most basic way. 우리 아버지는 고모와 살고 있어요 = Our father lives with our aunt, Notes: This word is used to refer to an older man whom you don’t know. 가기 싫다 = to not want to go Would love your thoughts, please comment. 제가 마르다 follows the 르 Irregular. You may have noticed that I still haven’t taught you one of those most common words in the English language. I have already briefly distinguished the difference between ~이/가 and ~은/는 in Lesson 2. 생일 = birthday 고양이는 의자 밑에 있다 = The cat is under the chair. 저는 그것을 지난 시간에 배웠어요 = I learned that (thing) last time 나는 길을 건넜다 = I crossed the street, 만나다 = to meet 있다 has many usages. Example: 오늘밤 = tonight Therefore, you don’t generally see “저” or “나” in these forms of Korean, and there is no need to see these writings as formal or informal. 오늘날 = the present time, these days, Notes: ~에 is typically not attached to 오늘 as it can be assumed, Examples: Once your account is created, you'll be logged-in to this account. 나는 문을 닫았다 = I closed the door (닫 + 았다), 나는 창문을 열다 = I open the window (note that this sentence is unconjugated) Don’t be overwhelmed. Okay, I got it! 한 시간 = one hour Future Tense, Adjectives I really mean that. You can download all of these files in one package here. I eat. Example: 너의 여동생은 예뻐요 = Your younger sister is pretty, Notes: 막내 이모 = the youngest sister of one’s mother, Example: If the verb is하다, its stem 하 is attached to 였 + 어요. 우리는 급식으로 오리고기를 먹었어요 = We had duck for the school lunch, Example: Although the plain form is not very common in conversation, the conjugation itself is incredibly important if you want to understand more complex grammar later on or learn to read most printed forms of Korean (books, newspaper, etc…). It is very common in Korean to refer to people that you are close with as your own family member. 이 가게는 싼 음식을 팔아요 = this store sells cheap/inexpensive food 학교가 모레 닫혀 있을 거예요 = The school will be closed two days from now, Common Usages: 너는 내일 누구(를) 만날 거야? Following the rule above, ~았다 is added to words with the last vowel being ㅗ or ㅏ and ~었다 is added to words with the last vowel being anything but ㅏ or ㅗ. 저는 그 사람이 싫어요 = I don’t like that person Future tense is easy, and is simply a matter of adding “~겠다” to the stem of a word. Some examples: 그 선생님은 아름답다 = that teacher is beautiful 저는 할머니를 위해 식사를 준비했어요 = I prepared a meal for grandmother Two bottles of soju please! When the speaker is the object (or other part) of a sentence “me” is used. 저는 토요일에 한교에 안 가요 = I don’t go to school on Saturday 병원은 박물관 뒤에 있어요 = The hospital is behind the museum Otherwise, add 었+어요. However, try explaining the meaning and purpose of “the” to a Korean person and you will quickly discover that its usage is very complex. 축구공 = soccer ball The last vowel in the stem is ㅏ. Notes: When talking about a day, “날” should be used. The hard thing about this ending is that there are so many irregular verbs.
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