Plant material, genotyping and phenotyping for marker validation: The populations were generated by effecting crosses between BPT5204 as female parent and Dodiga and A67 as male parents. Among the five Trichoderma strains, T. harzianum IMI-3924332 gave the highest germination percentage followed by T. harzianum IMI-3924333, T. harzianum IMI-3924334, T. virens IMI-392430 and T. pseudokoningii IMI-392431 treatment both in laboratory and field conditions, respectively while control decrease these value. The results of the study assemble to the further investigation of Trichoderma as an antagonist in improving rice resistance, yield and quality of seed. It was concluded that for obtaining higher germination in rice varieties, 35 °C proved to be most suitable temperature, while germination and almost all other studied traits were adversely affected with increasing temperature. index, while two isolates exhibited no significant effect on any of the measured parameters. Antagonistic effect of phosphofungi Aspergillus flavus (65±11 mm) and Aspergillus niger (60±13 mm) showed more effective against Colletotrichum sp. The QTL (RM5-RM306) for germination was mapped in the present study were also reported by Temnykh et al., (2001) and Thompson et al., (2003) indicating conservation of genomic regions across genotypes. DNA marker and genome mapping techniques are powerful tools for genetic analysis of quantitative traits loci (QTLs) controlling complex traits (Lander and Botstein 1989; Tanksley, 1993) and have been extensively used for genetic dissection of agriculturally important traits in rice ( Xio et al.,1996; Li et al., 1997; Yano et al., 1997; Yu et al., 1997). However, a little work has been done on the aegropotentiality of domestic waste water. higher than control, ... Plant growth promoting potential varies among different Trichoderma species and strains [27] Based on the results of the study, it was found that SB and RE isolates were superior in increasing germination in local varieties of black glutinous rice compared with T. asprellum SL2 (ASP) isolates. The QTL mapping using abundant and codominant marker like Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) will be useful in determining number, location and effects of loci controlling early vigour related traits. Disruption of OsIAGLU resulted in low seed vigour in rice. A single QTL (RM327-RM27) on chromosome 2 contributed highest phenotypic variance of 40.2%. The congruence of QTLs was observed on chromosome 5 in the region RM87-RM334 for three traits, viz., rate of germination, seedling dry weight and vigour index may be due to either linkage or pleiotropy. RM87-RM334 region on chromosome 5 was common for vigour index, rate of germination and seedling dry weight. 1. Further, the difference in seedling vigour index also showed a similar trend of statistically significant with treatment at different concentrations (F 1 = 55.63 & 48.94) as well as with different time period of incubation (F 2 = 27.99. and 27.09) for both rice and wheat respectively. In the present study apart from identification of QTLs, additive weight for each QTL was also computed to know the effect of replacement of a female allele (IR64) by a male (Azucena) allele. Zhang et al., (2005b) also reported presence of QTLs for germination on chromosome 4, 5 and 6 in Lemont/Teqing population. soil a decline in fertility, ecosystem damage, elimination of soil biota and emergence of resistant, fertilizers should be encouraged. (MAPMAKER/QTL v. 1. The best germination, seedling characteristics and growth occurred with EM 4 applied after dilution of 1:500 with water. Molecular markers have been proven effective in increasing selection efficiency, particularly for quantitative traits that are simply inherited. According to data analysed in Statistica 10, using Duncan’s test, there were no significant The comparison of means for the shoot and root lengths at different stages between three groups (two homozygotes and an heterozygote) revealed the association of RM178 with root length at 10th DAS (0.038) and shoot length at 10th (0.003) and 14th (0.029) DAS. Conclusion: Biofertilizers from native phosphofungi could be used alongside reduced levels of inorganic fertilizers to enhance soil available Phosphorous. understanding of the role of beneficial fungi in improving rice resistance to stress, yield an. while gibberellins are involved in cell division. Though PGPMs are colonized at/near the root of the plant, their wave of This was the case for shoot and root growth. 2.4. (2002) reported QTLs controlling seedling vigour related traits (germination rate, root dry weight and root activity) in the C246-RM26 region and root length QTL in RM26-C1447 region in Zhenshan 97/Minghui 63 population. Seeds germinated by 48 and 72h in the standard germination test were counted and expressed as percentage in first and second count, respectively. The additive effect could be either positive or negative. RM220 marker was associated neither with root nor shoot length in BPT5204/A67 population, even though initial screening of marker with ten high and low seedling vigour F2 plants showed possible association. showing the greatest increase in all the four parameters. Res. The additive effect of all the three QTLs at this locus was negative due to the replacement of IR64 alleles by Azucena indicating IR64 has positive alleles. Validation of markers in new populations: The markers RM253, RM220, RM178 showed expected 1:2:1segregation, while RM163 showed segregation distortion. MDA contents tended to go up steadily within lower concentration of NaCl, then sharply within higher concentration of NaCl.

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