It is essential for infants, children and adolescents to consume adequate amounts of calcium in their diets, as this contributes to a large majority of their growth and development. Factor analysis revealed four factors.Footnote 4 Each factor addressed a different aspect of modern dairy farming: farm practices, farm animals, farm economics, and consumer attitudes. Professional households are most often two person households in the highest income bracket and their pattern of expenses clearly reflects this; they like luxury, tasteful, trendy products and are very accepting of and interested in technical gadgets. Jókövi, E. M. (2000). People who had visited a farm in the last 2 years were also more positive (5.02) than those who had not recently visited a farm (4.86). Measuring age differentials in representations of rurality in the Netherlands., DOI:, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in The growing divergence in values and convictions within modern-day society helps explain why some people are so concerned about animals’ welfare and willing to support the campaigns of animal protection organizations, while others show little response. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. As such, the more one moves upwards in the model, the more “self-centeredness” becomes “focus on others.” The horizontal axis expresses a continuum between progress and conservatism, which illustrates a gradual shift from progression on the left to conservatism on the right. 1) in the following way: Parts I and II gave insights into contemporary and desired images (step 1). A decrease in the number of family farms attracted the least negative response, (proposition 4, μ = 3.95), very close to 4, showing that respondents were ambivalent about the trade-offs between modernity and maintaining family farms. A high overall score indicated that respondents were satisfied with contemporary dairy farming and a low score indicated dissatisfaction. (2008). 71(3), 399–428. This can probably be tracked back to idealized views of modernization that were widely held and promoted in the era when this generation grew up, and that for many may still be their natural point of reference. 2003). Een segmentatie van de Nederlandse bevolking. Projected onto the topic of this study this example illustrates that people neither entirely accept modernity (“go”), nor do they entirely reject it (“stop”); instead their moderate level of acceptance can be interpreted as ‘caution’ towards modernity. Cronbach alpha for the seven remaining propositions was 0.78. 79, 634–641. Research in Rural Sociology, This does not mean that traditional farming practices can not be clean and hygienic, but people identify and associate clean and hygienic farming practices as advantages of modern developments in dairy farming (Boogaard et al. But I understand that this is not realistic in the Netherlands. Animals and modern cultures: A sociology of human—animal relations in modernity. Boogaard, B.K., Bock, B.B., Oosting, S.J. Professionals saw the traditional image of dairy farming as being the least desirable (2.36), compared to hedonists (2.10) and socially-minded respondents (1.75). The factor was made up of two propositions, of which “paying more for Dutch milk of higher quality” attracted the most positive response (proposition 13, μ = 5.44). The respondents showed the most concern over the negative effects of modernization on farm economics (3.15), farm practices (3.24), and the treatment of farm animals (3.77). Een schaap in de bus? Holloway, L. (2004). The negative face of modernity is also expressed in criticisms about modern developments in agriculture, which go back a long time. But people do not shape their opinion on the basis of knowledge and experiences alone; values and convictions also play an important role (Te Velde et al. People with working experience in the agricultural sector were more satisfied (5.05) with dairy farming than people with no agricultural working experience (4.83). Rokeach, M. (1973). 117, 24–33. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. People take two dimensions into account when evaluating different aspects of modern dairy farming: (1) the way living beings are used for production and (2) the way a dairy farm functions as a business. 2004: 213). (Dutch respondent). Macnaghten, P., & Urry, J. The overall average (3.77) implied that modernity in dairy farming at the cost of animals’ naturalness was unacceptable, and modernity was again evaluated as being more negative than positive. 20, 211–225. From this perspective, it is not surprising that these people consider modernity in animal farming least acceptable. 2008). Respondents were also in support of “paying more to farmers who take care of nature and the landscape” (proposition 14, μ = 4.85). London: Sage. After the introduction we elaborate on modern society’s ambivalent relation with animal farming, summarized in what we define as the two faces of modernity. 2008). Numbers in the following text refer to the corrected mean, e.g., “(2.51)” implies that a group of respondents gave a mean score of 2.51 (on a 1–7 scale). Conservative people preferred a more traditional and natural farm and considered modernity less acceptable in the use of living beings (farm practices and farm animal treatment) than progressive people. By contrast, younger generations grew up in an era where the negative effects of modernization became apparent and were widely debated, and modernity was no longer unanimously or unambiguously accepted as a force for good. Contemporary images of farming were significantly influenced by their degree of rurality, working experience, and whether or not they had visited a farm in the past 2 years, which are all part of “knowledge and experiences.” Age and holding religious beliefs were also significant factors (Table 6). Finally, the third step answered the third research question—Which factors can explain differences between people’s acceptance of modern dairy farming? The overall average was calculated using these “recoded values.”. [The WIN-model. The positive and negative evaluations of the different aspects of dairy farming do not completely balance each other out. In addition, we know from earlier studies (e.g., María 2006; Haartsen et al. (2006). A. We gave equal weight to each proposition and recalculated the overall average per factor to measure the level of acceptability (Table 5). Showing and telling farming: agricultural shows and re-imaging British agriculture. Artificial insemination and slaughter of unproductive dairy cows were considered acceptable (proposition 7, μ = 4.87 and proposition 8, μ = 4.64), whereas zero-grazing and the separation of calf and dam were considered unacceptable (proposition 9, μ = 2.57 and proposition 6, μ = 3.04). Pearson: Harlow. This factor was made up of four propositions. (2000). At the same time, increasing numbers of people support organizations that stand up for (farm) animal rights (e.g., the “Party for the Animals” in the Netherlands or Animal Aid in the UK) and that challenge the acceptability of modern animal farming practices. Article  At the same time, however, the pursuit of modernity is also condemned because it frequently leads to a loss of traditions, customs, and values (Scott 2006). A review of evidence and methods. Some evidence of the existence of a rural idyll in the Netherlands. 2002; Tuan 1974). In a subsequent stage of the analysis we reduced the 16 “if/then”-propositions to four factors using an explanatory factor analysis. The more content people were with contemporary farming, the more they accepted that modern treatment of farm animals would be at the cost of animals’ naturalness. The overall average (3.15) implied that respondents considered modernity in farm economics to be unacceptable if it occurred at the cost of Dutch milk and Dutch dairy farms. 2003). Bos, B., Groot Koerkamp, P. W. G., & Groenestein, K. (2003). Based on this comparison, the dataset may be considered as fairly representative, except for religious beliefs.Footnote 1. From this the model derives eight value-orientations, defined as: socially-minded, caring and faithful, conservative, hedonist, materialist, professional, broad-minded, and balanced. This step gave answer to the second research question—What developments of modern dairy farming do citizens consider acceptable and unacceptable?

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